Tiger Farming Essentials

Breed Name : Tiger

Scientific Name : Panthera Tigris

Family: Felidae


  • 16-18 years (in captivity)
  • 20 years (in wild)

Speed: 49-65 KMPH (max.) in short bursts


Tigers live in diverse habitats: rain forests, grasslands, savannas and even mangrove swamps. Unfortunately, 93% of historical tiger lands have disappeared primarily because of expanding human activity

Breed Overview

  • Tigers originate from the Asian continent and are not native to Africa
  • There are Chinese and Bengal tigers that have been resettled into Africa. These animals are commonly released from zoos and introduced for the purpose of extending the survival and habitat of their species
  • Tigers used to be abundant in Asian countries, including Turkey and Russia
  • The largest of all the Asian big cats, tigers rely primarily on sight and sound rather than smell for hunting
  • Their vision in the dark is about six times better than that of humans
  • They typically hunt alone and stalk prey
  • The tiger is one of the twelve Chinese zodiac animals, and those born in the “Year of the Tiger” are thought to be brave, competitive and self-confident
  • Tigeris indeed stronger than the lion in terms of physical strength. A tiger is generally physically larger than a lion
  • Tigers are mostly solitary, apart from associations between mother and offspring
  • Individual tigers have a large territory, and the size is determined mostly by the availability of prey. Individuals mark their domain with urine, feces, rakes, scrapes, and vocalizing
  • More than 7,000 tigers being held in more than 200 “farms” in East and Southeast Asia. Roughly 3/4th of these tigers are located in China, with the remainder found mostly in Thailand, Laos, and Viet Nam
  • There are more tigers in captivity than there are in the wild. There are 5,000 captive tigers in the United States alone, but there are fewer than 3,200 tigers in the wild
  • The tiger is an apex predator and is armed with a very powerful bite force of around 1,000 psi (4,450 newtons) that allows it to take down prey with a fatal bite to the neck
  • The Tigers have an anatomy with over 600 muscles and a strong bone structure that makes them apex predators their natural habitat
  • They can leap more than 30 feet in a single jump which gives them an advantage when it comes to finding and attacking their prey
  • Tigers are excellent swimmers. Contrasting most cats, they like water and spend some time during the day relaxing in ponds, streams, and rivers to cool off during hot days, and they can swim pretty fine and are even capable of catching or carrying prey through the water

Breed History & Distribution

  • The oldest ancestors of these cats date back 2 million years old
  • The oldest remnants that could be traced back to a cat-like creature with tiger-like qualities are ones that belong to the Panthera palaeosinensis. These remains have been discovered in China, as well as in Java. The excavation is quite a feat for the scientific community as the species could be traced back to about two million years ago. The animal was smaller than tigers that we know of today. Remains of tigers, which are ancestors of modern tigers, have also been found in Java. These remains are about 1.6 to 1.8 million years old
  • In the late Pleistocene age, tigers first lived in India, as well as in northern Asia. They also reached Sakhalin and Japan among other areas. Judging from the fossils found in Japan, the local tigers were smaller compared to the ones living in the mainland. This could have been caused by a phenomenon that makes the body size adjust to the available space. Mainland tigers, after all, have more room to run and stretch and have therefore more chances to become larger. For a time, tigers also populated Borneo before the Holocene era arrived. They also once lived in Palawan, which can be found in the Philippines

Tiger Coat/ Appearance

  • Most tigers have the characteristic orange fur with black or brown stripes, but these markings vary between subspecies. For example, the very large Siberian tiger has pale orange fur with few stripes, while the smaller Sumatran tigers in the Sunda Islands have dark, thickly striped fur
  • No two tigers have the same markings, and their stripes are as individual as fingerprints are for humans
  • On the backs of each ear, tigers have a white spot of fur, called ocelli
  • A tiger’s hind legs are longer than its front legs, allowing it to jump up to 32.5 feet (10 meters)
  • Tigers also have very long tails, which can add around 3 feet (one m) to their overall length
  • Tiger size depends on its habitat. Tigers living in the North are larger than those in the South because they have a broader range of habitat and larger prey available. Tigers in the North have lighter coat coloring than those living in the South

Sub Types/ Sub-Species of Tigers

  • Sumatran Tigers – Smallest Tigers
  • Amur / SiberianTiger – The largest in size
  • Bengal Tiger
  • White Bengal Tiger
  • Indochinese Tiger
  • Bali Tiger
  • Javan Tiger
  • South China Tiger
  • Malayan Tiger
  • Caspian Tiger

Tiger Colours

Tigers may also be categorized based on following colors:

  • White Tigers: The white tiger is produced with the help of the allele called chinchilla albinistic and is rather a rare sighting in the wild. It has, however, a very attractive color, which makes it a popular choice in zoo breeding. The color trait is recessive. So, breeding white tigers usually ends up in inbreeding. Inbreeding should be avoided because it can cause several physical defects, which include scoliosis, strabismus (crossed eyes) and cleft palates. White tigers, even the healthiest ones, have shorter lives. There have been attempts to breed white tigers to orange ones to try to fix the situation. When orange and white tigers mix, there is a mixing of subspecies
  • Golden Tigers: Another recessive gene can result into an interesting “golden” hue. The color is sometimes called “golden tabby” and also sometimes called “strawberry”. Golden tigers actually have gold-colored fur, with pale orange stripes and supported by strong but pale-colored legs. They have thicker fur than what is usual for tigers. As of the last count, there are only around 30 golden tigers that are held captive. Golden tigers, like white tigers, are also part Bengal. In fact, some of them come with the white tiger gene. So, it is possible that when two golden tigers mate, they can end up producing a white tiger with no stripes. Just like the white tiger, the golden tiger is also larger than the average Bengal tiger
  • Other Colours: Other colors of tigers have been reported. There have been reports of a black tiger but none of these are authenticated except perhaps a Chittagong dead specimen back in 1846. Blue or slate-colored tigers have been heard of but not really confirmed. These tigers are called Maltese tigers. Another unconfirmed tiger color is predominantly black. If such a tiger exists, it may be a mutation instead of a separate, distinct species

Threats to Tigers

Poaching is the most immediate threat to wild tigers. Every part of the tiger—from whisker to tail—is traded in illegal wildlife markets. A result of persistent demand, their bones and other body parts are used for modern health tonics and folk remedies, and their skins are sought after as status symbols among some Asian cultures

Hybrids of Tiger

Tigers can interbreed with other species to create hybrids cats:

  • Liger: Cross between a male lion and a tigress. Ligers are larger than lions or tigers. Male ligers are sterile, but many female ligers are fertile.
  • Tigon or Tiglon: Cross between a lioness and a male tiger. Tigons are typically smaller than either parent.

Because of the focus on conserving genes from lions, tigers, and leopards, hybridization is discouraged. Hybrids are primarily seen in private menageries


Most common traits are: majesty, strength, courage, justice, and military might.

Length (Adult): Male: 2.5-3.9 m, Female: 2-2.8 m

Weight (Adult) : Male: 90 – 310 kg, Female: 65 – 170 kg

Tiger Reproduction Facts

  • Tigers generally gain independence at two years of age and attain sexual maturity at age three or four for females and at four or five years for males
  • There is sexual dimorphism in Tigers as females are smaller than males
  • On average, tigers give birth to two to four cubs every two years. If all the cubs in one litter die, a second litter may be produced within five months
  • Juvenile mortality is high, however—about half of all cubs do not survive more than two years
  • At birth, a cub weighs 2.2 pounds (1 kg), and a female may have as many as seven cubs at a time
  • At just 8 weeks old, tiger cubs are ready to learn how to hunt and go out on hunting expeditions with their mother
  • Tigers are solitary except when they try to mate, but after breeding, they go in separate ways
  • The female will look for a den to keep its cubs after birth, which takes place approximately 16 weeks after the conception
  • The cubs are blind at birth, and she will feed them with milk from her body for about eight weeks
  • Since males are always independent and solitary, they do not participate in the tasks of taking care of the young

Tiger Feed Requirements

  • The tiger is a carnivore. It prefers hunting large ungulates such as chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent also barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized prey species it frequently kills wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and grey langur
  • Siberian tigers feed mainly on wild boar, moose and deer. If regular prey is unavailable they will eat fish, rodents, rabbits and even small bears. During normal conditions, around 50 percent of the tiger’s diet will be of wild boar
  • Tigers can consume up to 40 kilograms of meat in a single meal
  • The Tiger is the third largest carnivore on Earth, only after the Polar and Brown Bears
  • Diet in zoos consists of commercially prepared feline food such as chickens, rabbits, mutton and horsemeat
  • In Zoos, twice a week, they receive knucklebones or beef femurs, and once a week they receive rabbits, which exercise the cats’ teeth and jaws

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