Dairy Cattle Farming

  • Breed Name: Cow Cattle
  • Scientific Name: Bos Taurus
  • Class: Mammalia
  • Family: Cattle
  • Subfamily: Bovinae
  • Gestation period: 283 days
  • Lifespan: 18 – 22 years
  • Mass:
    • Male: 1,100 kg (Large Adult, Bull)
    • Female: 720 kg (Large Adult, Cow)

Daily Feed Requirements

  • For milk production, the cow must eat large quantities of food and drink large volumes of water to obtain the nutrients that she needs. The cow is a ruminant which means that, unlike humans, she can make use of fibrous foods such as grass. In the UK, most grass grows in the months between March and November. The herd grazes outside during this period. Surplus grass is preserved for the winter months. The most common form of preservation is in the form of silage which is fermented grass. Drying grass in the sun is another method of preservation which produces hay. In recent years, farmers in central and southern Britain have started growing maize (the same plant as sweet corn) to make into silage as well, providing extra protein to the cows’ diet. Cows will eat silage or hay in the period between October and April when they are kept indoors.
  • Expectations of the modern dairy cow is a high milk production level, therefore, her grass-based diet needs to be supplemented with extra energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Concentrates are used for this purpose. Concentrates are mixtures of cereals, rape meal, sunflower meal, peas, soya, vitamins, and minerals etc which are ground and pressed in animal feed manufacturing mills to produce small, brown pellets
  • Dry forages are pasture (fresh forage) or high quality alfalfa hay, alfalfa-grass mix hay, grass hay or straw. Some dairy farmers will feeda mix of both silage and hay, while others might only feed silage or only feed hay, depending on the farm. The other half of the diet is called the concentrate
  • Actually, lush, protein-rich alfalfa hay make beef cattle Some signs that your beef herd has consumed too much fresh pasture include bloat, diarrhea and other digestive problems. Your cattlewill do best on a pasture grass mix of hay. This hay includes legumes as well as grass
  • Alternatively you can try “Premium Concentrates for Cattle” made through the ‘Secret Recipe’ of Nadia Pets Cross. It contains essential dietary requirements, minerals, vitamins, preventive medicines and a branded breeding formula to enhance fertility in your Cattle.
  • Feed Calculations
    • As an example, if it were determined the dailydry matter intake of a group of 1,200 pound cow eating an average quality hay is 24 pounds per head and the hay that they are consuming is 88% dry matter, these cows would consume about 27 (24 pounds/.88) pounds per head per day on an as-fed basis
    • As a thumb rule, a cow willeat 2 to 2.5 pounds of hay per day for each 100 pounds of body weight (about one 30- to 40-lb. bale per day). If you feed grain, the usual is 16% dairy ration, which will balance well with most pasture or hay. Another rule of thumb is to give 1 lb. of grain for every 3 lbs. of milk
    • cowcan eat about 55-60 lbs of corn silage per day (33% moisture. To grow cattlefrom 300 to 1000 pounds on only corn silage would require about 7 tons of silage. Generally you could expect between 20 and 24 tons of corn silage per acre
  • Water Consumption As a thumb rule, consumption will range from 1 gallon per 100 pounds of body weight during cold weather to nearly 2 gallons per 100 pounds of body during the hottest weather. Lactating cows requirenearly twice as much water compared to dry cows

Common Cattle Diseases

  • Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) or “Shipping Fever”, is a formof pneumonia commonly seen in shipped or stressed calves. Stress, such as weaning, dehorning, shipping and weather changes can make the animal susceptible to disease-causing viruses and bacteria. The best way to reduce the risk of BRDC is through routine vaccination. Vaccinating early in life is important, because calves that survive respiratory disease often don’t grow as fast or as large as calves, which have never been infected. A vaccine program should include protection against the following respiratory diseases, all of which contribute to BRDC.
  • Clostridial Disease, or “Blackleg” is a common name for a class of bacterial infections called clostridial. There are over 60 different types of clostridial bacteria, but not all of them cause the disease. Clostridial usually occurs in calves or young cattle less than 2 years old and is caused by gangrene that forms in the muscles. Clostridial normally results from young calves not getting the proper amount of colostrum. Clostridial can appear in older cattle and is usually the result of vaccine needle contamination.
  • BRSV (Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus) This is a sometimes fatal, stress-related infection that can cause mild to severe respiratory disease and reduce the animal’s resistance to other diseases. Signs include coughing, high fever, and runny eyes and nose.
  • BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhea) This is one of the most costly diseases of cattle. Signs include scours, nasal discharge, coughing, and fever. Type 2 BVD is a severe form of this virus that can cause hemorrhaging in young calves, as well as adults.
  • Haemophilus Somnus is a bacterial infection implicated in a variety of respiratory, neurological and reproductive disorders. H. Somnus can be the primary cause of respiratory disease, or it can be an underlying infection that is masked by other disease-causing agents. Signs of H. Somnus include fever, coughing, nasal discharge and labored breathing. Death without symptoms can occur.
  • IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis)‘Red nose,’ this highly contagious virus causes respiratory disease. Signs include inflamed nasal passages, fever, rapid breathing, deep cough, and loss of appetite.
  • PI3 (Parainfluenza Type 3) This is a common, mild respiratory disease that suppresses the animal’s immune system, allowing other diseases and infections to develop. The virus is shed in nasal and eye secretions, and infects non-vaccinated animals through the mouth and nasal passages.
  • Pasteurella Haemolytica and Pasteurella Multocida These highly infectious bacteria are the major cause of pneumonia, and the most commonly found pathogens in cattle dying of respiratory disease. P. Haemolytica and P. Multocida multiply quickly in the presence of stress, poor weather, or primary viral infections. Signs include depression, lethargy, loss of appetite, and high fever. Death can occur suddenly with few signs of disease, or the animal can survive only to become a “‘poor doer” due to the lung damage caused by this disease.
  • Rabies Rabies can infect all warm blooded animals, including humans. It attacks the central nervous system, causing death. Rabies vaccinations are only available from a veterinarian

 

Cattle / Cow Breeds

  • Angus cattle. The Aberdeen Angus or simply Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle. The Angus is naturally polled and solid black or red, though the udder may be white
  • Ankole-Watusi is a modern American breed. It derives from the Ankole group of Sanga cattle breeds of central Africa. It is characterized by very large horns
  • Australian Lowline is a modern Australian breed of small, polled beef cattle. It was the accidental result of a selective breeding experiment using black Aberdeen Angus cattle
  • Ayrshire cattle are a breed of dairy cattle from Ayrshire in southwest Scotland. The adult Ayrshire cow weighs from 450 to 600 kilograms. Ayrshires typically have red and white markings; the red can range from a shade of orange to a dark brown
  • Beefalo, also referred to as cattalo or the Canadian hybrid, usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the American bison, usually a female in managed breeding programs. The breed was created to combine the characteristics of both animals for beef production
  • Beefmaster is a breed of beef cattle that was developed in the early 1930s, from a crossing of Hereford cows and Shorthorn cows with Brahman bulls
  • Belgian Blue is a breed of beef cattle from Belgium aka. the Race de la Moyenne et Haute Belgique. Alternative names for this breed include Belgian Blue-White; Belgian White and Blue Pied; Belgian White Blue; Blue; and Blue Belgian
  • Belted Galloway is a traditional Scottish breed. It derives from the Galloway cattle of the Galloway region Scotland. It is adapted to living on the poor upland pastures and windswept moorlands of the region
  • Blonde d’Aquitaine is a modern French breed of large domestic beef cattle. It was created by merging three blonde draught breeds of south-western France, the Blonde des Pyrénées, the Blonde de Quercy and the Garonnaise for beef production
  • Bonsmara is a breed of cattle from S.Africa known for its high quality beef and resistance to local diseases
  • Braford is a cross between a Hereford bull and a Brahman cow. The make up of the Braford is 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Hereford
  • Brangus is a cross between an Angus and a Brahman. 5/8 Angus and 3/8 Brahman
  • British White cattle. It is used mainly for beef. It has a confirmed history dating back to the 17th century
  • Brown Swiss or American Brown Swiss is an American breed. It was selectively bred for dairy qualities only, and its draft and beef capabilities were lost
  • Canadian Speckle Park is a breed of cattle native to the Canada. The latter half of the breed’s name derives from the characteristic white, black and grey spots and patches of color that it is known for
  • Charolais cattle. The Charolais or Charolaise is a French breed of taurine beef cattle
  • Chianina is an Italian breed of cattle, formerly principally a draught breed, now raised mainly for beef. It is the largest and one of the oldest cattle breeds in the world. The famous bistecca alla fiorentina is produced from its meat
  • Chillingham cattle, aka. Chillingham wild cattle, are a breed of cattle that live at Chillingham Castle, England
  • Dairy Shorthorn is a British breed of dairy cattle. It developed from the Shorthorn
  • Dexter cattle are a breed of cattle originating in Ireland. The smallest of the European cattle breeds, they are about half the size of a traditional Hereford and about one-third the size of a Holstein Friesian milking cow
  • English Longhorn cattle are a long-horned brown and white breed of beef cattle originating from Craven, England. The breed was initially used as a draught animal The milk was also collected for butter and cheese because of its high butterfat content
  • Fleckvieh is a breed of dual-purpose cattle suitable for both milk and meat production. It originated in Central Europe in the 19th century from cross-breeding of local stock with Simmental cattle imported from Switzerland. Today, the worldwide population is 41 million animals
  • Galloway cattle. Galloways are primarily raised for their quality marbled beef, although they are sometimes milked or kept for ornament
  • Gelbvieh is a cattle breed originating in Bavaria. Gelbvieh were originally known as “red-yellow Franconian cattle” and were developed from several local breeds
  • Girolando cattle. The Girolando is a breed of dairy cattle created in Brazil by crossing Gyr cattle, a Bos indicus breed which is resistant to hot temperatures and tropical diseases, with Holstein cows, a Bos taurus breed
  • Guernsey cattle. The Guernsey is a breed of dairy cattle from the island of Guernsey in the Channel Islands. It is fawn or red and white in colour, and is hardy and docile. Its milk is rich in flavour, high in fat and protein, and has a golden-yellow tinge due to its high β-carotene content
  • Hanwoo, also Hanu or Korean Native
  • Hereford cattle. The Hereford is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England. It has been exported to many countries, and there are more than five million purebred Hereford cattle in over fifty nations worldwide
  • Highland cattle, aka English Highland cattle, long-haired Highland cattle, long-haired Scottish cattle, North Highland cattle, Scottish cattle, Scottish Highland cattle, and West Highland cattle, are a Scottish breed of cattle
  • Holstein Friesians are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Friesland, and Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany. They are known as the world’s highest-production dairy animals
  • Jersey cattle. The Jersey is a British breed of small dairy cattle from Jersey, in the Channel Islands
  • Limousin cattle are a breed of highly muscled beef cattle originating from the Limousin and Marche regions of France. The breed is known as Limousine in France. Limousins Initially used mainly as draft animals, interest in Limousins as a source of high-quality meat grew about 200 years ago
  • Maine-Anjou cattle. The Maine-Anjou is a French breed of domestic cattle, raised mainly in the Pays de la Loire region in north-western France
  • Montbéliarde is a breed of red pied dairy cattle from the area of Montbéliard, in the département of Doubs, in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France. It is used mainly for dairying and particularly for cheesemaking
  • Nguni cattle breed is special to Southern Africa. A hybrid of different Indian and later European cattle breeds. The cattle breed is medium-sized and adapted to grazing on the Highveld
  • Normande is a breed of dairy cattle from the Normandy region of north-west France. It is raised principally for its milk, which is high in fat and suitable for making butter and cheese, but also for its meat, which is marbled and good-flavoured
  • Ongole cattle is an indigenous cattle breed that originates from Prakasam District in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.
  • Parda alpine. Braunvieh is a breed or group of breeds of domestic cattle originating in Switzerland and distributed throughout the Alpine region. The Braunvieh was originally a triple-purpose breed, used for milk production, for meat and for draught work; the modern Braunvieh is predominantly a dairy breed
  • Piedmontese cattle. It is a breed of domestic cattle that originated in the region of Piedmont, in north-west Italy. The calves are born fawn coloured, and turn grey-white as they mature
  • Red Angus is a breed of reddish-brown-coloured beef cattle. Red Angus are registered separately from black Angus cattle in Australia, Canada, and the United States
  • Red Poll is a dual-purpose breed of cattle developed in England. The Red Poll is a cross of the Norfolk Red beef cattle and Suffolk Dun dairy cattle breeds
  • Salers cattle. It is a breed of cattle which originated in Cantal in the Massif Central of France. They are a large breed, with the female weighing between 700 and 750 kg and standing 1.40 m tall. They have a thick, mahogany red or black coat, and long, lyre-shaped, light-coloured horns
  • Santa Gertrudis cattle are a tropical beef breed of cattle developed in southern Texas
  • Senepol breed of beef cattle was developed on the Caribbean Island of St. Croix
  • Shorthorn breed of cattle originated in the North East of England. The breed was developed as dual-purpose, suitable for both dairy and beef production
  • Simmental cattle. The Simmental or Swiss Fleckvieh is a Swiss breed of dual-purpose cattle. It is reddish in colour with white markings, and is raised for both milk and meat
  • Spanish Fighting Bull is bred free-range on extensive estates in Spain, Portugal, France and Latin American countries where bull fighting is organized
  • Taurus cattle are an advanced form of Heck cattle, the wild ancestor of domestic cattle. They are the result of crossbreeding traditional Heck cattle with aurochs-like cattle mostly from Southern Europe to achieve a greater resemblance to the aurochs and larger body size
  • Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to over 70 inches tip to tip for bulls, and up to 100 inches tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows
  • Welsh Black cattle. The Welsh Black is a dual-purpose breed of cattle native to Wales. This breed is one of the oldest in Britain, going back to pre-Roman times
  • White Park cattle. It is a rare breed of ancient horned cattle primarily residing in Great Britain

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